Reward That Puppy Dog Training Inc.
Ada Simms CPDT-KA,OSCT
Positive reinforcement training uses praise and/or treats ( plus toys, games etc ) to reward your dog for doing something you want him/her to do. Because the reward makes the dog more likely to repeat the behavior, positive reinforcement is one of your most powerful tools for shaping or changing your dog's behavior.
By "marking" the behavior and giving reinforcement at the appropriate time, the dog ( this applies to humans and other species also) will repeat the behavior to earn the reinforcement. Reinforcement is anything that your dog loves and values. We mark the behavior with a verbal word or a noise, like a Clicker.
At Reward That Puppy Dog Training Inc, the basis of our methods are based on scientific research/studies on animal behavior. For so many years the myth of having to "dominate" your dog and be the "pack leader" has caused tremendous and avoidable behavioral issues in dogs.
Inflicting pain and injury on a dog is in no way useful and it will break the bond one desires to have with their dog. When there is fear present learning does not take place. Using force, pain, or intimidation will retard the dog's progress and taking away any hope you might have had for a decent relationship with an animal you could depend on.
CLICK ABOVE FOR FULL ARTICLE.
by Prescott Breeden - President of the Society for the Promotion of Applied Research in Canine Science
What is dog training
Dog training is literally the act of teaching a dog to perform a certain task—whether it is a sit or to stop lunging on leash—a task which ultimately requires the dog to make a successful decision. This is a complex physiological process that involves 3 things: the cognitive processing of relevant information, the estimation of relationships between actions and their potential consequences, and use of executive functions to optimize decision-making performance (Mair et al., 2011).
Prolonged and severe stress has deleterious effects on cognitive function, memory formation, and performance (McEwen & Sapolsky, 1995; Yerkes & Dodson, 1908)
Owners and trainers need to abandon confrontational methods and techniques, teach dogs ‘English as a Second Language’, talk to them like a loving parent, learn their cognitive landscape by playing and interacting with them, and enjoy the fact that they are not a robot: they are an individual with complex biological emotions and thoughts."
THE SCIENCE BEHIND THE ABOVE STATEMENT IS BELOW
Grohmann, K., Dickomeit, M. J., Schmidt, M. J., & Kramer, M. (2013). Severe brain damage after punitive training technique with a choke chain collar in a German shepherd dog. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research. doi:10.1016/j.jveb.2013.01.002
Joëls, M., Pu, Z., Wiegert, O., Oitzl, M. S., & Krugers, H. J. (2006). Learning under stress: how does it work? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10(4), 152–158. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2006.02.002
Mair, R. G., Onos, K. D., & Hembrook, J. R. (2011). Cognitive Activation by Central Thalamic Stimulation: The Yerkes-Dodson Law Revisited. Dose-Response, 9(3), 313–331. doi:10.2203/dose-response.10-017.Mair
McEwen, B. S., & Sapolsky, R. M. (1995). Stress and cognitive function. Current opinion in neurobiology, 5(2), 205–216.
Schwabe, L., & Wolf, O. T. (2011). Stress increases behavioral resistance to extinction. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36(9), 1287–1293. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.02.002
Yerkes, R., & Dodson, J. (1908). The relation of strength of stimulus to rapidity of habit-formation. Journal of Comparative Neurology and Psychology, 18, 459–482.
Gladstone Institute of Neurological Disease
Departments of Physiology and Neurology,
University of California, San Francisco Neuroscience Graduate Program.
"Balanced and dominance trainers tend to present reward and punishment as opposite sides of the same coin, as if choosing one over the other was a matter of taste. This simplistic picture ignores the basic fact that reinforcement and punishment are functionally, anatomically and cytologically different. This Study takes advantage of the relatively new technology of optogenetics; it permits cell-type specific targeting and the ability to control cell activation with light.
BF Skinner: Operant Conditioning
Skinner is regarded as the father of Operant Conditioning, but his work was based on Thorndike’s law of effect. Skinner introduced a new term into the Law of Effect - Reinforcement. Behavior which is reinforced tends to be repeated (i.e. strengthened); behavior which is not reinforced tends to die out-or be extinguished (i.e. weakened)